Legalities Over the Cloud and Who Owns your Data

When trying to figure out who has rights to your data there are three things to consider: you, the cloud provider, and the region your data is held in. A lot of the issues become issues because of the varying laws; where your data is held might be in different country than the country you uploaded porno from. So, even after you figure out what your agreement is with a Cloud provider they can be subject to the particular laws of another country; fore instance America has a set of laws known as the Patriot Act which grants the US government access under certain conditions. So even after you figure out who owns the data, and what that means, you might not have control over who is accessing the data.

When you decide on a Cloud provider there are a number of things that you want to look at. One of them being the terms of service that will, most likely, define how a provider views your data, and what they can do with it. The terms of service will be restricted by your regions governing principles. Fore-instance in England they have the ‘Copyright and Rights in Databases Regulations 1997’ to help clear up some of the vagaries of this new technological development. The law defines two types of data one that is protected by copyright law, and ones that aren’t but are still regulated in their way. The existence of the law is a step in the right direction towards clarifying ownership of the information that is being stored in the Cloud.

Although to confuse this issue even further is the fact that some of your information may be stored in your own database but you are using a Cloud service to handle it from time to time. Or your Cloud provider is servicing out to another Cloud provider; so they may host your information in a storage unit that isn’t their own. Each of these situations has unique problems and each part of this chain of concerns depends on user agreements and the particular governing bodies. So there is no single solution to answer the question of who owns your data, and as this issue becomes generally understood hopefully we will see some best practices winning out. Although I wouldn’t necessarily say there is no way to find out. There are some things that can be done to better understand what is happening. Unfortunately one of those things is reading over all your relevant user agreements, and as one source claims it would take roughly 250 working hours to read all the user/privacy agreements most of us come across in one year. So you have to balance your need to know with your time, but be warned the details are important.

Understanding governing rules of where your data is being held or processed is not insignificant either. Each region is going to have its own governing rules about what happens when data is processed and the processing of the data may influence who owns the data now that it has been changed. So each step and movement of your data becomes an important issue to consider when deciding on a Cloud provider.

Who owns your data, then? It depends on the governing laws and user agreement made between you and the Cloud provider. It also depends upon the governing laws of where your data is being held, in addition to the agreements that your cloud provider may be making with their cloud provider. The Cloud has so much under the umbrella of Cloud porno gratis services, that often one type of Cloud provider will outsource to another type of Cloud provider.

Hackers and the Cloud

There are a variety of reasons someone might be hacking your information, with any Cloud service there is going to be a wealth of data. Remember, whatever your reason for choosing one Cloud provider over another, other people are likely making similar choices for similar reasons. In addition, with more and more people moving their data to the Cloud, the increase in payoff for the hacker attracts more sophisticated hackers. Hackers will use a number of entry points to get into the Cloud provider. A lot of the vulnerabilities are in the interface between you and the Cloud provider. A Cloud service should be using the most sophisticated techniques to secure your data on their end. But remember that an API gives access to the server, in limited formats, to any one using the UI or API.

An API, or Application Programming Interface, is is similar to a UI, or User Interface. Though often used similarly, the two can offer varying services depending on who is using the term. An interface is the way a user interacts with some program or programs; an API provides access to the service. It is a program that you can operate from a remote location. This interface provides a key security loophole that can be exploited because the Cloud provider is giving access to the user. It can seem an obvious problem, and in some respects it is, in addition some API’s give access to the Cloud customer’s customer. Some companies or individuals are using Cloud services to offer back up and security to their prospective clients.

There is no one-step way to prevent hackers, a lot depends on the systems you are using. For every system there are going to periodic vulnerabilities, but staying up to date with the latest patches for your software is important. Researching known vulnerabilities is also important. There are various companies which you can hire to keep you abreast of vulnerabilities and problems that occur.

A lot of Hackers are increasing their efforts towards spear phishing, spear phishing is a way to find out passwords or answers to security question through indirect means. After discovering who has access, a hacker will look through public information about that customer, and even a username that might be given away by the employee. The most basic thing you can do to thwart hackers is to educate your employees on the various threats to security. What could seem like an innocuous question, or email attachment, can very well be the opening to an attack. The basics are simple, verify everything. If you aren’t sure of the website, or an email attachment, then do a little research into it. Perhaps you are getting a call from someone saying they are a provider; find out for sure by calling them back.

Hackers have a variety of reasons to get your information, sometimes to sell it to other hackers who can use your usernames and passwords to log into other sites. Suffice to say, this information is becoming more and more of a commodity it our markets. And as long as there are people who want that information, a burgeoning blackmarket for information will develop.

The difficulty is that this is all going on behind the scenes. You may have been hacked and not even know it, yet identifying what information was compromised, and the weak point in your system that allowed for the breach, is a crucial part of keeping a competitive edge in the world today. A lot of the prevention can seem vague or unnecessary to keep your data safe, but it is vital to understand security and your Cloud provider.

Cloud Security Concerns for Any Customer to Consider

For a Cloud customer there are primarily three questions you have to ask yourself:
– what cloud service I want;
– what security vulnerabilities does that cloud service have;
– and what can I do once I have chosen videos porno to limit those vulnerabilities.

A lot of vulnerabilities arise from a lack of knowledge. The Cloud service provider will connect their available network to you by way of a UI or API interface. So being informed will help you as a customer know how best to control your operation, and prevent loss or release of data.

A number of concerns arise when trying to secure your operations. Amongst the concerns one has to consider is what are you sharing on the Cloud service, how secure is the connection to the Cloud provider, and who has access to your operations and information. These questions can form the basis of an investigation into preventing future data failures from happening.

The most basic things you can do to prevent your information from being hacked is to use encrypted data; anything that goes over a network should be encrypted. Encryption is the lock on your information. Another important strategy is to use passwords, especially for any administrative duties, and change those passwords periodically. The problem is that in house employees will not want to memorize changing passwords, and passwords shouldn’t be in the cloud system itself. So a difficult balancing act becomes necessary and in order to juggle between protecting access to your Cloud data, and ease of use.

Another thing you can do to secure your system is to back everything up. In case of malicious or accidental removal, you will have that data stored elsewhere, and you most likely want to encrypt those backups for protection. Hackers can have a variety of reasons for attacking your Cloud provider or personal system, and some of those reasons involve removing your data from the web. So it is vital to create back-ups of important data.

Make use of the security updates your Cloud provider releases immediately; these security patches repair known flaws. If your provider has provided a patch, this means anyone who knows of the patch knows of the flaw in the system, and most likely some people knew of this flaw before you did. The key to good security is to be one-step ahead of everyone else, people trying to access your information are most likely going to go after the lowest hanging fruit.

According to the CSA, another important security concern to consider is the threat of malicious insiders. A malicious insider is someone who now has, or once had access, and now wishes to use that access in a way you don’t want. A malicious insider could be an ex-employee. One way to remedy circumstances is to have a fast turn over rate for security access when new employees are hired and old employees leave. You want to change access over from old employees to new ones immediately. Other measures you can take is to routinely track access to sensitive information. While I deplore over reaching efforts to snoop on employs, there is a balance that can be achieved by tracking access to particularly sensitive information and encryption keys or passwords.

The use of a Cloud service is fraught with new and old perils. While it is in many respects more secure handling your porno information yourself, its attractiveness as a target for an attack makes it vulnerable. So taking steps to ensure that you are able to limit security loopholes and working with your cloud provider is a good way to help ensure the security of sensitive information and data.

The Cloud Operators and Their Security Concerns

As a data operator of a Cloud service you will have many security concerns. Any new technology comes with a host of new threats to your business model, in particular the business of maintaining privacy in the digital world has become difficult. According to the CSA publication The treacherous 12, there are over 12 security threats to consider. Their article focuses on the 12 most pressing issues they have chosen, of which several of them are of particular concern. According to wikipedia the CSA puts Insecure interfaces and API’s at almost a third of the ‘cloud security outages’, and data loss and leakage make up to a quarter, with hardware failure being the third most troublesome issue.

Without going into great technical detail there are a variety of ways that an insecure API can result in loss or release of sensitive data. To simplify the situation it is about access, a multitude of individuals who now have controlled access. Every door though provides a weakness that walls do not have. Your API is a door into the server room, and a host of people all have their own doors. While most people only have access to their own portion of the server, the server can have bugs not known that give access to other parts of the room. Not to mention the fact that often a Cloud customer may give access to third parties to use the data on the Cloud.

Data loss can occur in a number of significant ways outside of malicious intentions. It is important to maintain backups in case of disaster. Any kind of disaster that destroys the actual hardware of the Cloud service is a possibility to keep in mind; though a client encrypting their information and forgetting the encryption code is a far more likely concern. It does not rest solely on the Cloud provider to prevent loss of information. While malicious intent does compromise most of the loss of data that could have been prevented, it is much more difficult to maintain good practices of protection against an intelligent intruder, over lets say the Customer forgetting their encryption key.

The Mitigation of data leakages involves many types of habits that a good Cloud provider must follow. There are a few types of applications that the Cloud provider can set up to mitigate data leaks from shared networks. It is important to keep in mind that the hardware a client is using could be used by a number of other customers. And this creates security vulnerabilities in the system itself that, even without malicious intent, can lead to outsiders having access to the clients data. Any program is going to have bugs, bugs are essentially problems in the code that wasn’t vetted for. This is going to happen with any program. The amount of code it takes to write a sophisticated program means that there are vulnerabilities that haven’t been thought through, or even discovered yet.

Vulnerabilities lie in loose links, and with so many links in the encryption process it becomes difficult to cover all your bases. It isn’t impossible, the important thing is to stay ahead of the curve. You want to be more secure than your neighbour to prevent vulnerabilities. But the facts are that the code itself is often hundreds of lines long, and to know every vulnerability in a chain that large becomes difficult, luckily finding cracks in the chain is also difficult for the hacker. But above and beyond the programming errors, which can be solved with frequent patches, is the human vulnerabilities and hardware failure.

Porting your Data as a Cloud Customer

Without any single dominant Cloud provider porting your data from one service to another is a grueling task. Depending on the service you are using; Iaas, Paas, or Saas all come with their own interoperability problems. Even something as simple as a Saas Cloud customer may want to move their data held in the cloud to an in-house server as your operations grow and become more streamlined. The problem is that your Cloud provider may not have the right tools for a convenient transition. For instance if you wanted to move all your emails to another client. Imagine forwarding each email individually, this is meant as an illustrative example only. Your platform may or may not have solutions to porting over into an new system.

For the consumer porting your services from one provider to another would be a significant boon. Before the consumer decides on a Cloud provider to host their operations they have to ask themselves what type of operations are they outsourcing. The nuances will vary according to type of Cloud service being utilized, and the needs their particular products have. For instance if you are utilizing an Saas Cloud system then the data stored on say iMessage wouldn’t transfer directly to Google Chat; or perhaps you are using a Paas xxx system for your cloud services and coding in a particular platform. You might find that you would be able to minimize costs by switching Cloud Services but you might have to recode elements of your services or perhaps switch languages. The issues aren’t unsolvable these days, in fact we have even begun to write programs that debug programs, but that solution is in its infancy and would increase costs for the Cloud consumer.

The problems are a mixture of technical know how, and a business will. Interoperability in a general sense is the ability of an infrastructure to be able to connect and communicate with another structure without implementation or restriction of access. It is the ability for a service to be formatted so as to allow cross-platform communication. And each Cloud Service is going to want to showcase a unique product to their customer base. Essentially they will want to carve out a niche at the least, if not become the primary provider, and to do that they need to have a unique and powerful offering.

Some of the issues facing interoperability and ease of porting a customers data include: rebuilding applications, the actual transfer of data, and making sure the services the consumer needs exist on the new platform. From the customers perspective being able to have full service compliance would be important. You wouldn’t want as a customer to be going over to a new system and having your old files need to be reengineered just get the same tasks done. Or perhaps relearning a different set tools just to be able to do what you had been able to do originally. The actual porting of your data is another large hurdle that needs to be passed. Because in some instances the customer can’t reasonable port large quaintness of data by email, so the compliance of having the right videos porno in your first service provider and the right hook-up for your new provider needs to be run smoothly, let alone how the data is formatted. One reason sending the data by the internet is troublesome is there are security concerns that need to be considered when porting data over any public connection, even one that would encrypted.

So interoperability is an important step in being able to port your data as a Cloud service customer, and being a viable strengthening company in the current climate one often needs to move your services from one cloud to another, or to an in-house server.

VM snapshots for efficient Forensic Investigation

Cloud computing is a technology which allows users to access storage, software, and infrastructure and deployment environment based on a model named “pay-for-what-they-use”. The nature of the cloud environment is that it is multi-tenant and dynamic as there is a need for addressing the various legal, technical and organizational challenges regarding the cloud storage.

With the dynamic nature of the cloud environment, it is possible for digital investigations to be carried out in the cloud environment. Digital forensics has to adhere to a number of steps as it was the case with traditional computer forensics. These steps include Identification, Collection, Examination and Reporting/ Presentation. The first step involves identifying the source of evidence, while the collection phase involves identifying the actual evidence and collecting the necessary data. The examination stage involves analyzing the forensic data, while in the reporting phase, the found evidence is presented in a court of law.

The digital investigators experience challenges as a result of the legal, technical and organizational requirements. If some compromise is made on the part of the CSP, then the evidence which is provided will not be genuine. It might have happened the data you are relying on as evidence was injected by a malicious individual.

A number of digital devices are currently using the cloud, but the investigators are given little chance to obtain the evidence. The available Agreement may not be stating the role of the CSP in carrying out the investigation and its responsibility during the time of happening of the crime. The CSP might have failed to keep logs which are an important part in getting evidence regarding the occurrence of a crime. The investigator also has to rely on the CSP for collection of the necessary log files, and this is not easy. Many researchers have clearly stated that many investigators experience difficulties in trying to collect the log files.

The cloud service provider will provide their clients with a number of different services, and it has been found that only a few customers from the same organization will be accessing the same services. Malicious users are capable of stealing sensitive data from the other users and this can negatively affect the trust of the CSP. There is a need for the cloud to protect against these malicious activities by use of Intrusion Detection Mechanisms for monitoring the customer VMs and in detecting malicious activity.

A user can create his or her physical machine to create a VM. Other than for the user having to request, some cloud software such as the OpenStack and eucalyptus will create snapshots from a VM which is running and then store the snapshots till when the VM has terminated. If you reach the maximum VMs, then the older VMs will be deleted from the system. The snapshots from a cloud environment are a great source of digital evidence and they can be used for the purpose of regenerating events. It is hard for us to store numerous snapshots. The snapshots have also been found to slow the virtual machine, and this is determined by the rate at which it has changed since when it was taken and the period of time for which it is stored.

Malicious activities will always be identified in case the users of the VM carry out actions such as uploading a malware to the systems in our cloud infrastructure, excessive access from a location, or by performing numerous downloads or uploads within a short period of time. Other activities which can be suspicious include cracking of passwords, launching of dynamic attack points and deleting or corrupting some sensitive organization data.

The Need for Standards in Cloud Computing Security

For enterprises to view cloud computing as the best choice for storage of their data, standards are of great essence. Most IT enterprises are working hard to ensure that they get a cloud which will help them cut on their expenses while achieving their business needs.

Today, most organisations allow only a percentage of their daily operations to be supported by the cloud. Although IT experts expect that the adoption of the cloud should accelerate in the near future, many enterprises are still wondering whether the cloud is the best solution for storing their data. The main source of fear is security. The enterprises are not sure of whether their data will be secure in the cloud.

They are also in need of creating an on-demand service while keeping compliance and industry compliance. The enterprises shy away from storing g their data in the cloud for fear that they are not protected. The cloud is porous in nature, and this makes it an attractive target by attackers and securing it has become more complex as the porno site.

Currently, there is no definition on what an effective cloud security is. There exist no standards defining what an effective cloud security might, and what is expected from both the providers and the users to ensure that the cloud data has been well secured. Instead of having these, the enterprises and providers are left to rely on data center standards, list of auditing specifications, industry mandates and regulatory requirements for provision of guidance on how the cloud environments should be protected.

Although this approach can make cloud computing to be somehow complex, it is a good approach to ensure that the cloud data is well secured. There is a need for both the enterprises and the cloud providers to ensure that they focus on the core elements of well secured cloud such as identity and access management, virtualisation security, content security, threat management and data privacy.

It is also good for the industry to consider the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) specifications regarding the cloud security, so as to form a good foundation for protection of the data and services which are running in the cloud. Although most of the principles here were meant for the government organisations, they are very relevant and applicable in the private sector.

The guidelines provided by NIST are good for addressing serious issues regarding cloud security such as identity and access management, architecture, trust, data protection, software isolation, incidence response, availability and compliance. The body also states the factors which organisations have to consider in relation to public cloud outsourcing. The CSA (Cloud Security Alliance) is a good source of knowledge for rules regarding how to secure data running in on-demand environment. Here, you will know more about the best practices for securing such data. With CSA, all the necessary guidelines which can help you know whether your cloud provider is doing what they can to secure your data are provided.

Working through such organisations is good as they will help both the customers and the provide in laying of a good groundwork for the purpose of creating a secure cloud environment. Security principles should be applied as much as possible when we are securing our cloud environments. With good standards for cloud computing, the enterprises will be much guaranteed that their data is safe in the cloud. This will improve their trust for the cloud provider, and they will make cloud computing the best solution to their IT needs. The current customers will be much assured of the security of their data.

Logging Framework for Forensic Environments in Cloud Computing

The field of cloud computing has attracted many researchers. It is good for you to know the conditions under which the data is stored in data centres or is processed, and then it becomes an interest for cloud computing forensics. The use of cloud computing in forensics has increased, and this is as a result of emergence of new technologies. The architecture of a cloud logging system is layered, and is composed of 5 layers, each with its own task. Let us discuss these layers:

The management layer
The modules which are responsible for most operations in the cloud can be found in this level, together with the ones targeted for the forensics, like the “Cloud Forensic Module”.

Virtualisation layer
This is the second layer in the architecture, and this is the layer in which we can find the servers and workstations which host our virtual machines. Although the virtual machines are the main building blocks in our environment, it is good for us to have virtualisation enabled in the hardware. A Local Logging Module should be installed in the Cloud Forensic Interface in the physical machine that we have. This will be the one tasked with gathering of the raw data from the virtual machines which are being monitored. The investigator can choose to adjust the amount of data, and they can select a particular virtual machine to monitor it, or maybe choose to monitor the whole activity which is taking place in the virtual machine.
For the data to be gathered reliably from your virtual machine, the local logging module has to be fully integrated with the running hypervisor inside our physical machine. We have to be keen on the kind of data which we intercept from the virtual machine, and then send it for further processing. It is possible for any activity to be intercepted, you will experience some penalties in terms of processing speed and timer.

Storage layer
This is the third layer in the logging architecture. It is where the RAW data which has been send from the modules which exist in the virtualisation layer is stored. The RAW data will be send by the logging modules in the form that it has been gathered from the hypervisor. From this, we can say that the layer has functionality similar to one of a distributed storage.

Analysing Layer
This is the fourth layer in the logging architecture. It is responsible for ordering, analysing, aggregating and processing the data which has been stored in our previous layer. As you might have noticed, the processes will use the computing resources intensively, and this calls for the analysing process to be done in an offline manner, and it is made available to the investigators immediately the job is ready. Once the process is completed, the investigators will be having all the relevant information regarding what happened in the remotely monitored machine, and they will be capable of navigating throughout the activities of the virtual machine so as to know what happened. In most cases, the layer is implemented in the form of distributed computing applications. This is mostly the case when the application needs a great computing power

Storage layer
This is the fifth layer in the architecture. This is where the results published from the rest of the layers is stored. This is the layer at which the forensics investigator will interact with the virtual machine snapshots they are monitoring, and this is done by use of the Cloud Forensic Module which is obtained from the Management layer.

Improving SOC Efficiencies to Bridge the Security Skills gap

Security alert storms are on the rise. Most organisations have chose to deploy more products for security and you have to know that each of the product will be having its own security alerts, workflows and interfaces.

These enterprises have gone ahead to recruit more security analysts so that they can deal with the increasing security alerts. However, most IT professionals lack security skills, and this is why enterprises have not found enough security analysts. Research has shown that the need for security analysts is increasing by 18% on an annual basis.

The question now is, how do enterprises solve this problem? Automation is the best solution to the problem. It will work by reducing on the amount of work that an analyst is expect to perform, but it will be hard for a junior to know the tricks of the trade.

The following are some of the measures which have been taken for the purpose of alleviating the skill-set gap:

Sharing knowledge and collaboration
Most tools for sales and marketing are focused on collaboration. Identify a tool which has succeeded in sales porno and marketing as this will give you any necessary information about the actions of the customers. Also, anyone who makes use of the system can share their experience with other users. Each SOC has to be ready to learn from the peer analysts and then take part in the operations workflow for SOC. When you build the collaboration as part of the SOC workflow, you will be in a position to detect any duplicate incidences which under investigation, and the junior analysts should be educated so that they can learn from the senior analysts.

Training and play-books
Creation of play-books is good as these will help the analysts read the process described therein and then adhere to them in their daily practices. Most tools for sales and marketing will make the individual work hard and in the proper way by reminding what their next step constantly, and the time they are expected to involve or collaborate with the others in the team. In SOC, this has to be done correctly so that the work of the analyst will not be interfered with in any way. The playbook should always be geared towards promoting the best practices which should be followed and these must have been developed over a period of time rather than in a faster manner. The play-books should not been seen as a static file sitting in your documents, but they should be seen as a repository which represent events which have taken place overtime. These will improve the productivity of the analyst, and at the same time make it easy for them to track future events.

Automation
This is best when some tasks have been repeated and they do not require any intervention by human beings. There are numerous such tasks in security and they just take us unnecessary time. In some cases, some cases will go un-investigated since the number of alerts will overwhelm the available videos porno security personnel. It is always good for us to automate the tasks which are complex for us to perform.

Searching and Learning Historically
The analyst can easily and quickly make decisions from the historical data they have from security incidences of the past. The data should be more than the log data, and should be analysed very well. When it comes to issues of security, you don’t need complex tasks for the purpose of alerts.
Tracking incidences using a closed loop
It is good for you to analyse metrics the response to an incidence, workload imposed on the analyst and the required skills over time and this will help you improve on your security posture in the organisation.